The hottest international trade and environmental

2022-08-13
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The fundamental purpose of international trade and environmental protection is to promote the development of human society. This paper introduces the current situation of international trade and environmental protection packaging, and puts forward the Countermeasures for developing environmental protection packaging in international trade, with particular emphasis on strengthening the ability of developing countries to participate in international trade and protect the environment

when commemorating the 33rd "World Environment Day", let's work together to realize the coordinated development of international trade and environmental protection packaging, improve human living standards, better protect the environment and maintain ecological balance

the main focus of international trade and environmental protection packaging

from the "trade and environmental protection work plan" of the WTO Committee on Trade and environment, the current debate focus on Trade and environmental protection issues mainly includes the following aspects: first, between the GATT and trade environmental protection measures; Second, between the trade environmental protection policy and the general agreement on Tariffs and trade; Third, between GATT and environmental protection fees and taxes; Fourth, the transparency of trade environmental protection measures; Fifth, the U.S. Department of energy, which has been banned in China, once said that every 35 degrees increase in LED products can shorten their service life by more than 42%, or strictly restrict the export of goods; Sixth, trade in services and environmental protection. There are four main focus issues between environmental protection packaging in international trade and GATT. First, the problem of "pollution paradise"; Second, green offset tax; Third, waste recovery; Fourth, the content of recycled materials

the first is the so-called "pollution paradise". It refers to a country deliberately implementing lower environmental standards or broader environmental protection law enforcement policies in order to attract foreign investment, thereby causing the transfer of polluting industries to the country. If some underdeveloped countries/regions implement the "pollution paradise" policy, other countries will weaken their competitiveness in the field of international trade and investment due to their higher environmental standards or stricter environmental protection implementation of the previous November law

green offset tax is a means against "pollution paradise"; It refers to the imposition of additional import taxes on products produced from the so-called "pollution paradise" countries/regions. The problem is how to determine the amount of this tax. The quantification of environmental protection costs almost inevitably involves subjective factors, such as cultural, aesthetic, traditional, customary, and even religious values. Therefore, this kind of offset tax may conflict with the free trade principle of GATT and may be abused

waste recycling is one of the green packaging barriers we often talk about. "Takingback" refers to a "recycling system" established by product producers to enable consumers of their products to return a certain amount of waste materials related to products, such as waste packaging materials, HCFCs and other substances, to producers

recycledcontent refers to the foreign supplier of goods/packaging who guarantees that the goods/packaging it supplies contain a specified amount or proportion of recyclable materials or substances. 3、 (IV) the purpose of both obligations is to protect the human environment, but they may increase the costs of producers and suppliers of products, thus constituting unreasonable trade barriers

ecological signs of environmental protection packaging in international trade

due to the possible problems of ecological signs of packaged goods in international trade, it has attracted the attention of all countries, especially developing countries. There are six main trade problems that may be caused by the practice of eco labels: first, the eco label management organization of a country may refuse to grant eco labels to its products because it does not take into account the environmental characteristics of foreign producers. 2、 The determination and grant of ecological signs may be mixed with subjective elements, which lack an objective reflection of the production process of products. 3、 The classification of the target products of ecological signs may be beneficial to domestic products rather than foreign similar products. 4、 The standards, issuance procedures and even the signs themselves of ecological signs may increase the production costs of foreign producers, especially those in developing countries. 5、 Foreign producers may not be notified or able to participate in the formulation process of ecological signs, or even if notified or able to participate, they lack relevant technical expertise. 6、 Foreign producers may be more reluctant than domestic producers to provide the trade secrets required for the certification of ecological signs. In addition, ecological signs are related to the agreement on technical barriers to trade and the agreement on health and plant quarantine of the general agreement on Tariffs and trade

countermeasures for environmental protection packaging in international trade

in general, it is necessary to restrict trade with certain environmental protection policies. At present, the main reasons for restricting the entry of commodities/packaging from developing countries into the markets of developed countries are: increasingly strict and complex environmental regulations and environmental protection standards in developed countries; High standards of environmental protection packaging management, especially the provisions on Ecological signs and packaging materials; Obligations of producers, such as the aforementioned obligations on "recovery"; Recycled substance content obligation; Regulations on public sector procurement and voluntary industrial regulations on environmental protection. In response to the above problems, the suggestions put forward by various countries mainly include the following eight points:

① implement preferential market access system for "eco-friendly" products, instead of implementing green offset tariffs for products produced according to lower environmental protection standards

③ provide financial and technical assistance to help developing countries better participate in the activities of the international standards organization

④ revise the relevant provisions of the WTO to make countries treat developing countries differently from developed countries with 3-wire power plugs when taking environmental measures

⑤ revise the general agreement on Tariffs and trade. Allow countries to apply exceptions to general environmental requirements for relevant products to developing countries with small market share

⑥ implement policies on product consistency, testing and certification institutions, promote environmentally friendly raw materials and coordinate the transfer of environmentally sound technologies at the regional level

⑦ countries should recognize each other's similar environmental standards to ensure that products from underdeveloped countries enter the markets of developed countries

⑧ formulate special safeguard measures for ecological signs and other measures

special problems of environmental protection packaging in international trade

special problems in environmental protection packaging in international trade are the export of domestic prohibited goods. According to relevant international regulations, domestic prohibited goods refer to goods that are prohibited or strictly restricted from sale or consumption in China, including hazardous waste, recyclable waste, drugs, cosmetics or agricultural chemicals such as pesticides. Developing countries are particularly interested in the export of such commodities. Because they lack the technology, knowledge and experts to evaluate the environmental protection risks of such commodities, they are often the victims of the export of such commodities

for the export of this kind of special packaging goods, the United Nations and international organizations have formulated some international laws/conventions to control it. For example, the 1985 international pesticide code of conduct of the food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, the 1985 London code of conduct of the United Nations Environment Programme, and the 1990 chemicals convention of the International Labour Organization; The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)] the 1992 guidelines on the transfer of nuclear material, the 1990 International Code of practice for the transboundary movement of radioactive waste, and the 1989 Basel Convention on the control of transboundary movements of hazardous wastes

The essence of the focus of international trade and environmental protection packaging is to change the old and unequal international economic order, develop international trade, and implement environmental protection packaging, which basically includes the following four aspects

promote the sustainable development of human society

as we all know, the high consumption mode of production and lifestyle in developed countries is still the main reason for the pressure and damage suffered by the human environment. In the discussion of the relationship between trade and environment in the international community, this issue has not attracted enough attention. Therefore, the development of environmental protection packaging in international trade will change the "two highs" mode of high consumption production and high consumption life in developed countries, and achieve the sustainable development of human society

promote the establishment of a new international economic order

historical experience shows that when the old and unequal international economic order has not been eradicated and the new and equal international economic order has not been established, trade liberalization is likely to aggravate the negative impact of the old and unequal international economic order on human living environment and increase the polarization between the rich and the poor. Therefore, the development of environmental protection packaging in international trade will reduce the impact of trade liberalization and promote the establishment of a new international economic order

promote the development of underdeveloped countries

international trade is only a means of commodity exchange, and trade itself is not necessarily conducive or harmful to the environment. However, the problem is that at present, many goods/packages in international trade are unsuitable or even harmful to the environment. Products/packages flow from developed countries to developing countries/underdeveloped countries through trade, which causes harm to the people's health and environment in these countries. For example, the cross-border transfer of drugs, pesticides, asbestos products, toxic and dangerous industrial products, hazardous wastes, etc. banned in developed countries, and so on. The development of environmental protection packaging in international trade will change this unfavorable situation for the environment and promote the development of underdeveloped countries

promote the rational use of resources

from the historical lesson, the legacy of the former colonial trade model - the unequal and unreasonable transfer of resources between the north and the South still exists more or less. From the perspective of world resource transfer, primary products, such as wood, minerals, agricultural products, etc., flow from countries in the South (i.e. developing countries) to countries in the North (i.e. developed countries). The output of these products does not calculate the environmental cost of the exporting countries; The flow from northern countries to southern countries is mainly industrial products, and the price of these industrial products includes the cost of controlling industrial pollution in the exporting countries. Therefore, in the past, in the commodity/packaging exchange of international trade, the losses of the southern countries were double (including both economic losses and environmental losses), and the profits of the northern countries were double (both exporting products at high prices and transferring the cost of controlling industrial pollution). This pattern will be improved

in a word, in line with the idea of establishing a new and equal international economic order and a new global trade partnership, all countries should work together to adjust the current international trade system and environmental protection treaties, especially to strengthen the ability of developing countries/underdeveloped countries to participate in international trade and protect the environment. In order to realize the coordinated development of international trade and environmental protection packaging, the sustainable development of human society, improve human living standards, better protect the environment and manage the ecosystem

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